Online play

Advantages of online play include: The software prevents improper plays and calls, such as insufficient bids, revokes (failure to follow suit when able), and actions out of turn. Unauthorised information cannot be passed by tone of voice or body language (but can much more easily be passed by external communication). Detailed records are kept which can aid partners to review and improve their bidding and play. Hands can be easily be analysed for best play (double dummy) afterwards. Can play with partners far away - or across town. No need to assemble 4 people in one place. Faster play - no shifting chairs or waiting for shuffles. Player rating systems may attempt to measure ability without regard to the number of games played or the number of years spent accumulating masterpoints. Fewer restrictions on the conventions that are permitted compared to club tourneys. Easy to find opponents for practice in bidding and playing. You will meet bridge players from every country and time zone. Flexibility when to play (24/7), and choice of opponent skill level. Choice of individual, pairs, or team competitions. There are also a number of disadvantages: Inability to decide on bidding convention ahead of time when partners are strangers. A reduced social element. Players may leave before a hand finishes, or in the middle of a planned session, either intentionally or because of connection difficulties. Tournaments are usually shorter online. A common length is 12 boards(deals). Online services support many simultaneous tournaments. When you finish one tournament, another will start soon. Some online services like BBO have apps for Android and iPhone. Nonverbal communication is usually understood as the process of communication through sending and receiving wordless (mostly visual) cues between people. Messages can be communicated through gestures and touch, by body language or posture, by facial expression and eye contact, which are all considered types of nonverbal communication. Speech contains nonverbal elements known as paralanguage, including voice quality, rate, pitch, volume, and speaking style, as well prosodic features such as rhythm, intonation, and stress. Likewise, written texts have nonverbal elements such as handwriting style, spatial arrangement of words, or the physical layout of a page. However, much of the study of nonverbal communication has focused on face-to-face interaction, where it can be classified into three principal areas: environmental conditions where communication takes place, physical characteristics of the communicators, and behaviors of communicators during interaction.