Contract bridge

Contract bridge, or simply bridge, is a trick-taking game using a standard 52-card deck. It is played by four players in two competing partnerships,[1] with partners sitting opposite each other around a table.[2] Millions of people play bridge worldwide in clubs, tournaments, online and with friends at home, making it one of the world's most popular card games, particularly among seniors.[3][4] The World Bridge Federation is the governing body for international competitive bridge. The game consists of several deals[5] each progressing through four phases: dealing the cards, the auction (also referred to as bidding), playing the hand, and scoring the results.[6] Dealing the cards and scoring the results are procedural activities while the auction and playing the hand are the two actively competitive phases of the game. A trick-taking game is a card game or tile-based game in which play of a "hand" centers on a series of finite rounds or units of play, called tricks, which are each evaluated to determine a winner or "taker" of that trick. The object of such games then may be closely tied to the number of tricks taken, as in plain-trick games such as Whist, Contract Bridge, Spades, Napoleon, Rowboat, and Spoil Five, or on the value of the cards contained in taken tricks, as in point-trick games such as Pinochle, the Tarot family, Rook, All Fours, Manille, Briscola, and most "evasion" games like Hearts.[1] The domino game Texas 42 is an example of a trick-taking game that is not a card game. Trick-and-draw games are trick-taking games in which the players can fill up their hands after each trick. Typically players are free to play any card into a trick in the first phase of the game, but must follow suit as soon as the score is depleted. Certain actions in trick-taking games with three or more players always proceed in the same direction. In games originating in North and West Europe, Russia, and the United States and Canada, the rotation is typica ly clockwise, i.e. play proceeds to the left; in South and East Europe and Asia it is typically counterclockwise, so that play proceeds to the right. When games move from one region to another, they tend to initially preserve their original sense of rotation. For two-player games the order of play is moot as either direction would result in exactly the same turn order. In each hand or deal, one player is the dealer. This function moves from deal to deal in the normal direction of play. The dealer usually shuffles the deck (some games use "soft shuffling", where the dealer does not explicitly shuffle the deck), and after giving the player one seat from the dealer opposite the normal direction of play an opportunity to cut, hands out the same (prescribed) number of cards to each player, usually in an order following the normal direction of play. Most games deal cards one at a time in rotation; a few games require dealing multiple cards at one time in a packet. The cards apportioned to each player are collectively known as that player's hand and are only known to the player. Some games involve a set of cards that are not dealt to a player's hand; these cards form the stock (see below). It is generally good manners to leave one's cards on the table until the deal is complete. The player sitting one seat after the declarer(one with the highest bid and not the dealer) in normal rotation is known as the eldest hand. The eldest hand leads to the first trick, i.e. places the first card of the trick face up in the middle of all players. The other players each follow with a single card, in the direction of play. When every player has played a card to the trick, the trick is evaluated to determine the winner, who takes the cards, places them face down on a pile, and leads to the next trick. The winner or taker of a trick is usually the player who played the highest-value card of the suit that was led, unless the game uses one or more trump cards (see below).